Both genders took part in storytelling, artwork and music, traditional medicine, and leadership. Catawba Religious Beliefs, Mortuary Customs, and Dances by Frank G. Speck, Primitive Man, 12, 2, April, pp. In 1759, they again suffered from smallpox, and in 1761, had some 300 warriors, or about 1,000 people. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. History of the Catawba River The Catawba River was named after the tribe that first settled its banks, the Catawba Indian Nation. By the 1760’s, a reservation had been established for them within the present-day York and Lancaster Counties of South Carolina. Please note that Catawbas and other American Indians are living people with a present and a future as well as a past. They had customs similar to neighboring Native Americans in the Piedmont region. We presently have a wide variety of programs and services available to enhance the lives of our citizens. Catawba Indian Culture and History. He was said to have persuaded the Catawba to lend their name to the scheme, and had a history of criminal and civil enforcement actions against him and his companies for illegal gambling. The Catawba, also known as Issa, Essa or Iswa, have lived along the Catawba River for thousands of years, with their ancestral lands in the Piedmont region of North and South Carolina and into southern Virginia. Since the late 20th century, some men also make pottery. The Catawba Indians present a wonderful example of faithfulness and devotion to the American people, but history has never done them justice, nor has a full account of them appeared even in a newspaper or a magazine. But as more Europeans arrived, the tribe was decimated with diseases. [citation needed], In 1738, a smallpox epidemic broke out in South Carolina. Required fields are marked *. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) was amended in 1992 to establish tribal historic preservation programs. They called it Iswa; today the river is known as the Catawba in North Carolina and as the Wateree in South Carolina. American Indian and Alaska Native The United States and Puerto Rico: 2010", William C. Sturtevant, "Siouan Languages in the East". [22], On September 9, 2013, the Catawba announced plans to build a $600 million casino along Interstate 85 in Kings Mountain, North Carolina. Mooney accepted the tradition that, following a protracted struggle, the Catawba and Cherokee had settled on the Broad River their mutual boundary. They returned after the Battle of Guilford Court House, and settled in two villages on the reservation. And we are preparing for the future of the tribe through education, economic development, and planning. Early colonial estimates of the Catawba population when settlers arrived are between 15,000-25,000. By 1826, their numbers had been reduced to only about 110 people and nearly the whole of their reservation was leased to white settlers. [citation needed], In the late nineteenth century, the ethnographer Henry Rowe Schoolcraft wrote that the Catawba had lived in Canada until driven out by the Iroquois (supposedly with French help), and that they had migrated to Kentucky and to Botetourt County, Virginia. Ihre Nachkommen bekamen 1993 die bundesstaatliche Anerkennung (federal recognition) als Catawba Indian Nation und eine rund 2,6 km² große Reservation bei Rock Hill im York County in South Carolina. [citation needed] When the linguist Albert Samuel Gatschet visited them in 1881 and obtained a large vocabulary showing numerous correspondences with Siouan languages, linguists classified them with the Siouan-speaking peoples. The Catawba Nation is primarily associated with the state of South Carolina. The Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma filed a motion to support the EBCI; both motions were approved. Speck, Frank G. (1939). The Catawba Reservation (.mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}34°54′17″N 80°53′01″W / 34.90472°N 80.88361°W / 34.90472; -80.88361) is located in two disjoint sections in York County, South Carolina east of Rock Hill. In 1909 the Catawba sent a petition to the United States government seeking to be given United States citizenship.[14]. Their name is probably derived from the Choctaw word meaning divided or separated, but, the tribe calls themselves, yeh is-WAH h’reh, meaning “people of the river.”. That partnership, New River Management and Development Company, LLC (of which the Catawba were the majority owner) operated the Catawba's bingo parlor in Rock Hill. [2] They live in the Southeastern United States, on the Catawba River at the border of North Carolina, near the city of Rock Hill, South Carolina. On March 13, 2020, the DOI announced its decision to approve the 2018 discretionary application and place the land in North Carolina in trust. Before contact with the Europeans it is believed that the Nation inhabited most of the Piedmont area of South Carolina, North Carolina and parts of Virginia. Speck, Frank G. (1934). The Catawba were once one of the most powerful tribes in the Carolinas. The Catawba also own a 16.57-acre (6.71 ha) site in Kings Mountain, North Carolina, which they will develop for a gaming casino and mixed-use entertainment complex.[17]. They also practiced the custom of head-flattening to a limited extent, as did several of the neighboring tribes. [15], On July 21, 2007, the Catawba held their first elections in more than 30 years. The land for the proposed casino is 35 miles (56 kilometers) northwest of the Catawba reservation in upstate South Carolina. Steven Paul McSloy, "Revisiting the "Courts of the Conqueror:" American Indian Claims Against the United States", The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Catawba Indian Tribe of South Carolina Land Claims Settlement Act of 1993, "2010 Census CPH-T-6. As a complement to our Catawba language information, here is our collection of indexed links about the Catawba tribe and their society. Held at the Catawba Cultural Center, proceeds are used to fund the activities of the center. During this time, they were noted to be both farmers and good hunters and the women were proficient at making baskets and pottery, arts which they still preserve. The Catawba were sedentary agriculturists, who also fished and hunted for game. Many of the Catawba tribal members living on the Reservation ar… The last survivor of the westward migration, an elderly Catawba woman, died among the Cherokee in 1889. The Catawba were not at that time a recognized Native American tribe as they had lost their land and did not have a reservation. During the rally, Trump announced his support for extending federal recognition to the Lumbee Tribe. Tribal leaders say the federal government allowing the Catawba to move across state lines for the purposes of more lucrative gaming interests sets a bad precedent. Senate bill 790, introduced by South Carolina Senator Lindsey Graham, with support of North Carolina senators Thom Tillis and Richard Burr, would have authorized the DOI to take the land into trust for gaming, but the bill died in committee.[25]. The Catawba made bowls, baskets, and mats that they traded with other tribes. The Catawba were long in a state of conflict with several northern tribes, particularly the Iroquois, Seneca, and the Algonquian-speaking Lenape. The state Supreme Court overturned the lower court ruling. In 1826, the Catawba leased nearly half their reservation to whites for a few thousand dollars of annuity; their dwindling number of members (as few as 110 by an 1896 estimate)[10] depended on this money for survival. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. A once powerful people who assimilated numerous neighboring tribes, the Catawba were weakened by warfare and disease. Ihr traditionelles Stammesgebiet lag am Catawba River an der Grenze zwischen North- und South Carolina und ihr Name bedeutet Leute vom Fluss. The Catawba Nation Longhouse serves as the administration building for the tribe. In 1728 there were six villages, all on the Catawba River, the most northerly of which was Nauvasa. The British began to colonize the area that is now South Carolina in the 1670s. The Catawba were long in a state of conflict with several northern tribes, particularly the Iroquois, Seneca, and the Algonquian-speaking Lenape. The Catawba Indian Nation is one of the indigenous Indian tribes that settled the Carolina Piedmont over 10,000 years ago. [19], In 2006, the bingo parlor, located at the former Rock Hill Mall on Cherry Road, was closed. Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, tribes were encouraged to renew their governments to exercise more self-determination. By 1760 the Catawba are believed to have absorbed parts of at least 20 other Siouan-speaking tribes in the region. This path was frequently traveled and was used until 1744 by Seneca war parties to pass through the Shenandoah Valley to raid in the South. These were primarily the tribes of different language families: the Iroquois, who ranged south from the Great Lakes area and New York; the Algonquian Shawnee and Lenape (Delaware); and the Iroquoian Cherokee, who fought for control over the large Ohio Valley (including what is in present-day West Virginia). Traditionally, the Catawba were matriarchal societies, with women having dominance. By reason of their dominant position, by the 18th century the Catawba had gradually absorbed the broken tribes of South Carolina, to the number, according to Adair, of perhaps 20. The Catawba were electing their chief prior to the start of the 20th century. In the end, the Catawba had no home and by 1847, the South Carolina Governor declared: “They are, in effect, dissolved.”. [5], In 1721 the colonial governments of Virginia and New York held a council at Albany, New York, attended by delegates from the Six Nations (Haudenosaunee) and the Catawba. In May 2020, the EBCI filed an amended complaint in its federal lawsuit, saying that the DOI's approval of the trust land resulted from a scheme by casino developer Wallace Cheves. During the President Franklin D. Roosevelt administration, the federal government worked to improve conditions for Native Americans. It was named for the Indian tribe which had already lent its name to the county and the river flowing nearby. By 1950 an unknown number were counted among the Choctaw, Creek, and Cherokee … The early history of the Catawba Indians is clouded but it is known that by 1567 the tribe had settled the area around the Catawba River along the border of what are today North and South Carolina. The earliest know occupants in historic times of Catawba Island were members of the Erie Indian tribe. It provided for federal oversight and enforcement of people's constitutional right to vote. From the earliest period the Catawba have also been known as Esaw, or Issa (Catawba iswä, “river”), from their residence on the principal stream of the region. Each village was governed by a council, with a chief as the head. We appreciate it," Trump said. Though it would take two decades, they finally succeeded, receiving federal recognition in November 1993. The Catawba (also known as Issa or Esaw, but most commonly Iswa) are a sovereign and recognized nation, not a tribe, of Native Americans, in the Southeast United States, along the border between North and South Carolina.The Catawba were once considered one of the most powerful eastern Siouan tribes. In addition, for decades the Catawba pursued various land claims against the government for the losses due to the illegal treaty made by South Carolina in 1840 and the failure of the federal government to protect their interests. These were known as Newton, the principal village, and Turkey Head, on the opposite side of the Catawba/Wateree River. The Catawba and other tribes, such as the Sissipahaw, suffered high mortality in these epidemics. In 1566, the first contact was made with Europeans. When Europeans arrived, the Catawba bordered on the Cherokee to the west, the Cheraw, Occaneechi, Saponi, Tutelo, and other Siouan-speaking Piedmont groups to the north, the Tuscarora to the east, and the Mississippian chiefdom of Cofitachique to the south. AS is customary, the suit names the DOI, the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Secretary David Bernhardt, and several other department officials. Collier of SPM Resorts, Inc. of Myrtle Beach, to manage their bingo and casino operations. In 1841, another treaty with the South Carolina government stipulated that the tribe sell their remaining 144,000 acres of land in return for promised payments to buy land elsewhere, as well as additional annual payments. In 1929 Samuel Taylor Blue, chief of the Catawba, had begun the process to gain federal recognition. The nations of the Iroquois League frequently referred to the Catawba under the general term Totiri, or Toderichroone, also known as Tutelo. Catawba Tribe History Benjamin P. Harris. The Six Nations reserved the land west of the Blue Ridge mountains for themselves, including the Indian Road or Great Warriors' Path (later called the Great Wagon Road) through the Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia backcountry. The Historical Marker database has pictures and inscriptions of the Catawba Indian Memorial in Fort Mill, York County, South Carolina. Some left the Southeast to resettle with clusters of Mormons in Utah, Colorado, and neighboring western states.[13]. The women have been noted makers of pottery and baskets, arts which they still preserve. The Catawba have also been known as Esaw, or Issa (Catawba iswä, "river"), named after their territory along the principal waterway of the region. It terminated the government of the Catawba in 1959. It closed in 2017, unable to turn a profit. [11] About the same time, a number of the Catawba, dissatisfied with their condition among the whites, removed to join the remaining eastern Cherokee, who were based in far Western North Carolina. The Iroquois collectively used this term to apply to all the southern Siouan-speaking tribes. However, the plan was unsuccessful as other tribes, who had moved west did not want the Catawba because they would have had to share the land, government money, and services. 319–330. There are over 150 THPOs to date. [23] Cleveland County officials quickly endorsed the plans. The earliest mention of the Catawba in written accounts was made by Spanish explorers of the mid-sixteenth century. The Catawba allied themselves with the new settlers for protection against their traditional enemies – the Cherokee, Iroquois, and Shawnee. Catawba women were farmers and also did most of the child care and cooking. The colonists asked for peace between the Confederacy and the Catawba. The Catawba chased Lenape raiding parties back to the north in the 1720s and 1730s. Endemic for centuries among Europeans, the infectious disease had been carried by them to North America, where it caused many deaths. Their headquarters are at Rock Hill, South Carolina. The Catawba, also known as Issa, Essa or Iswä but most commonly Iswa (Catawba: Iswa – "people of the river"), are a federally recognized tribe of Native Americans, known as the Catawba Indian Nation. By 1775 they had only 400 people in total; in 1780, they had 490; and, in 1784, only 250 were reported. Tribal membership that year was slightly more than 600. In September, the Catawba submitted a new application under the discretionary process; they also pursued a Congressional route. This cut off federal benefits, and communal property was allocated to individual households. Catawba County wurde am 12. They sold the facility in 2007. The new contract was signed by the former governing body immediately prior to new elections. [citation needed], During the nineteenth century, their numbers continued to decline, to 450 in 1822, and a total of 110 people in 1826. In addition, the contract was never brought before the General Council (the full tribal membership) as required by their existing constitution. In 1959, they were also terminated as a recognized tribe by the federal government. In the 2010 census, 3,370 people identified as having Catawba ancestry. Like African Americans since the turn of the 20th century, the Native Americans were largely excluded from the franchise by discriminatory rules and practices associated with voter registration. De Soto’s expedition in 1540 apparently went directly through their homeland but did not mention a … Die Catawba, auch Iswa, Issa oder Esaw, sind ein Indianerstamm aus der Sprachfamilie der Sioux. In 1999, the South Carolina General Assembly passed a statewide ban on the possession and operation of video poker devices. By 1728, the Catawba had been reduced to about 400 warriors, or about 1400 persons in total. In 1759, smallpox swept through the Catawba villages reducing the tribe’s population to less than 1,000 by 1760. During the American Revolution, many of the Catawba joined in the fight for the Americans. [8] Mooney asserted that the name of Catawba Creek in Botetourt came from an encounter in these battles with the northern tribes, not from the Catawba having lived there. In the 1950s, the federal government began to press what is known as the Indian termination policy, based on its perception that some tribes were assimilated enough not to need a special relationship with the government. Today the Catawba earn most of their revenue from Federal/State funds. The Catawban language, which is being revived, is part of the Siouan family (Catawban branch).[4]. They were prevented from voting until the late 1960s, after the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed. Catawba College opened in 1851 with a gift of 10 acres of land and a capital investment of $15,000. In 1996, the Catawba formed a joint venture partnership with D.T. Catawba Nation, Rock Hill, SC. 81–84. The governments had not been able to prevent settlers going into Iroquois territory, but the governor of Virginia offered the tribe payment for their land claim. 21–57. The English named the Catawba River and Catawba County after this indigenous people. Catawba villages were surrounded by a wooden fence or wall. When in 2004 the Catawba entered into an exclusive management contract with SPM Resorts, Inc., to manage all new bingo facilities, some tribal members were critical. In 1851 a remnant band reached the Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory, where they were later granted citizenship. By the 1760’s, a reservation had been established for them within the … We use cookies. The Catawba are an American Indian tribe of the southeastern United States. Early Spanish explorers estimated that their population was between 15,000-25,000. [17] On March 17, the EBCI filed a federal suit challenging the DOI decision in the U.S. District Court in the District of Columbia. Tribes located to the west continued warfare against the Catawba, who were so reduced that they could raise little resistance. comment . In 1759, smallpox swept through the Catawba villages reducing the tribe’s population to less than 1,000 by 1760. Catawba men were hunters and sometimes went to war to protect their families. It said that the DOI disregarded early consultation with the EBCI and skipped an Environmental Impact Assessment. 5.9K likes. In 1994, the Catawba Cultural Preservation Project (CCPP) was designated by the Catawba Indian Nation Executive Committee to act as the repository for the collection, preservation, and promotion of the tribe's history and culture. Mortality in these epidemics for extending federal recognition 15 ], early Spanish explorers of the,. With Europeans Americans in the mid 17th century the tradition that, following a protracted struggle the... Near present-day Scullyville, Oklahoma Cherokee, Iroquois, Seneca, and communal property was to. Ban on the remaining square mile after the Treaty along the banks of the Catawba who! Cherokee historic Territory s, a smallpox epidemic killed nearly half the Catawba became well known their. 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